Clinical and instrumental characteristics, clinical prognosis in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, depending on the presence and nature of the iron deficiency state

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V. V. Gorbachova
A. V. Lyashenko
T. I. Gavrilenko
L. S. Mhitaryan
L. G. Voronkov


The aim – to compare patients with chronic heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with absolute and functional iron deficiency (ID) state according to the main clinical, hemodynamic, laboratory parameters and clinical prognosis indicators.
Material and methods. In January – February, 2018, 128 stable patients with chronic heart failure (111 of men and 17 of women), 18–75 years old, NYHA class II–IV, with left ventricular ejection fraction < 40 % were screened. Patients were included in a clinical compensation phase. Quality of life was assessed by the Minnesota living with heart failure questionnaire (MLHFQ), physical activity was estimated by the Duke University index, functional status – by assessing the 6-minute walking test and a standardized lower limb extension test.
Results. ID was observed in 61 % of patients, 65 % had absolute ID. Patients with both types of ID were in higher functional class, had a poorer quality of life and worse clinical and laboratory indices than patients without ID. Regardless of the difference in the functional and absolute ID formation mechanisms, no significant distinctions in the clinical and functional parameters, quality of life, as well as the parameters of intracardiac hemodynamics were found. Contrary to expectations, elevated levels of hepcidin were not detected in patients with functional ID compared to the absolute ID group. The reliable differences in survival/hospitalization rate between patients without ID and both groups of patients with ID allow us to recommend the screening of iron deficiency in all patients with chronic heart failure and reduced LVEF.
Conclusions. ID is found in 61 % patients. Functional ID was found in 27 patients (21 %), absolute ID – in 51 patients (39.6 %). There were no differences between groups of patients with absolute and functional ID by age, functional class, LVEF, percentage of aneamic patients, 6-minute walking distance, thigh quadriceps endurance, quality of life, physical activity index, NT-proBNP, citrulline and hepcidin levels. Compared to patients with absolute ID, patients with functional ID had higher levels of hemoglobin, MCV, MCH, interleukin-6. Presence of both ID types was associated with worse survival and more frequent hospitalization.

Article Details


Heart failure, functional iron deficient, absolute iron deficient, survival, hospitalization, prognosis.


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